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ANNAGASSON, a village, in the parish of DRUMCAR, barony of ARDEE, county of LOUTH, and province of LEINSTER, 8 miles (S.) from Dundalk; containing 235 inhabitants. This place is situated on a pleasant beach, forming part of Dundalk bay; it comprises 38 houses, which are neatly built, and the handsome residence of Robert Thompson, Esq., who has some extensive mills, and is proprietor of the shipping, which afford employment to the inhabitants. The river Drumcar abounds with salmon and trout, and is here crossed by a substantial bridge. There is a beautiful drive along the sea-side to Dundalk, and to Clogher Head, where regattas are annually held; and the view of the bay and the sea, with steamboats and other craft daily passing and repassing, give an air of cheerfulness to the place. The principal import is coal for the supply of the neighbourhood. Fairs are held on March 17th, May 7th, July 22nd, and Nov. 8th. - See DRUMCAR.
ARDEE, an incorporated market and post-town, and a parish, in the barony of ARDEE, county of LOUTH, and province of LEINSTER, 10 miles (S.W. by S.) from Dundalk, and 34½ miles (N.N.W.) from Dublin; containing 6181 inhabitants, of which number, 3975 are in the town. This place, anciently called Atherdee or Athirdee, derives its name from its situation on the river Dee. Though a town of great antiquity, it was chiefly indebted for its former prosperity and importance to Roger de Pippart, one of the English adventurers, who became lord of the surrounding territory, and erected a strong castle here, about the beginning of the thirteenth century. In the year 1207 he also founded a hospital for Crouched friars of the order of St. Augustine, dedicated to St. John, and endowed it with a caracute of land, to which he afterwards added two more, and other gifts. Eugene, Archbishop of Armagh, who died in 1215, confirmed the charter of this establishment, and granted it the privilege of electing its own prior, and it attained an eminent degree of wealth and importance. A Carmelite friary was also founded at an early period, to which Ralph de Pippart, in the reign of Edw. I., granted certain endowments out of his manor of Ardee, and its revenues were further augmented by several of the inhabitants. During the invasion of Edward Bruce, who laid waste much of the surrounding country, many of the inhabitants assembled for protection in this friary, which was attacked by a party of Scots and Irish under his command, and reduced to ashes. John de Bermingham, after repelling these invaders, was created Earl of Louth, and had a grant of the manor, but was soon afterwards killed in an insurrection of his own people. In 1538, the town was burnt by O'Nial and his associates; and in the following year George Dowdall, the last prior of the Augustine monastery, surrendered that house with all its possessions in lands and advowsons, and was allowed a pension of £20 sterling until he should obtain some ecclesiastical preferment. Having been appointed to the archbishoprick of Armagh, he received a grant for life of the monastery and its appurtenances, in 1554; and in 1612 its possessions in and near the town were granted, by Jas. I., to Sir Garret Moore, who also subsequently received a grant of the remainder. On the breaking out of hostilities in 1641, Sir Phelim O'Nial obtained possession of the town, which thence became the headquarters of the Irish army; but Sir Henry Tlchborne advanced against it in the same year, with his small force from Drogheda, and retook the town and castle, in which a garrison was then placed. At a subsequent period the Marquess of Ormonde issued orders to the garrison to destroy the town, which, from their neglect or disobedience of his commands, afterwards fell into the hands of Cromwell. Jas. II., after leaving Dundalk, retired with his army to this place; but on the approach of William's forces, previously to the battle of the Boyne, retreated to Drogheda.
The town is situated in a very fertile corn district, and consists of one principal street, with lanes branching from it; many of the houses are of respectable appearance. Turf is brought for the supply of the inhabitants from a large bog about 1½ mile to the west, by means of a branch of the river Dee, which has been made navigable for boats. Malting is extensively carried on; and there are a corn-mill and a corn and. flourmill. The market is held on Tuesday and is well supplied: a meat market, or shambles, was erected by the corporation in 1796, which cost about £600; and a corn market about the year 1710, at an expense of nearly £2000, for each of which they pay a ground rent of about £10 per annum. Fairs, of which four are held under the charter of Queen Anne (in confirmation and extension of a patent of Chas. II. in 1681), and three were granted by patent of Geo. III. in 1819, are held on March 1st, April 10th, June 6th, July 8th, Aug. 20th Oct. 23rd (a large fair for sheep), and Dec. 17th principally for live stock, on a plot of ground which has been enclosed at a considerable expense by the corporation. The tolls were granted by charter to the corporation, who, previously to 1823, claimed the right of levying toll not only at the market and fairs, but also toll thorough and pontage; but after considerable resistance, accompanied by riot and disorder, their claim to the latter was negatived at the Dundalk assizes in that year; and the payment of the former has been since also resisted, but their right has been confirmed by the assistant barrister for the county. Here is a chief station of the constabulary police.
A corporation is first mentioned in a charter of the 51st of Edw. III. (1377), as set forth in a charter of inspeximus and confirmation of the 3rd of Rich. II., under the style of "the Provosts (or Portreeves) and Commonalty of the town of Athirde;" and certain customs on goods for sale were granted to them for a term of ten years, and confirmed by succeeding monarchs, in aid of enclosing the town with a stone wall and paving the streets. A charter of the 1st of Hen. V. (1414), granted cognizance of all pleas, real and personal, and jurisdiction of assize, with return of writs and other important privileges, within the town and precincts; and by a statute in the 33rd of Hen. VI., confirmed by another in the following year, it was enacted that the portreeves should be justices of the peace. The present governing charter was granted in the 11th of Queen Anne, 1713; under it the corporation is styled "the Portreeve, Burgesses, and Commons of the Corporation of Atherdee;" and consists of the portreeve, 23 other burgessses, and an unlimited number of freemen, assisted by a town-clerk, constable, two serjeants-at-mace, and other inferior officers: there is also a select body composed of the portreeve, six burgesses, and six common council freemen. The portreeve is elected annually out of the burgesses on the 23rd of April, by the portreeve, burgesses, and freemen, and is sworn in on Sept. 29th; the burgesses are elected for life out of the freemen, by the corporation at large; the freemen are created by nomination of the common council and subsequent election of the corporation at large; and the members of the common council are created for life in the same manner as the burgesses. The borough returned to the Irish parliament two members, elected by the burgesses and freemen, until the Union, when, of the £15,000 awarded as compensation for the abolition of the elective franchise, one-half was paid to Wm. Ruxton, Esq., and the remainder to Chas. and Wm. Parkinson Ruxton, Esqrs. The portreeve under the charter is a justice of the peace, coroner, and clerk of the market; but, being usually a justice of peace for the county, and the local courts having fallen into disuse, these peculiar functions are little exercised, and the corporation is now little more than nominal. The county quarter sessions for the division of Ardee are held here in January and June; and petty sessions are held every Wednesday, at which the portreeve and county magistrates preside. The old castle is now used as a. courthouse; and attached to it is a well-regulated county bridewell of modern erection. The revenue of the corporation is derived from rents of lands and tolls, and amounts to about £135 per annum.
The parish comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 4884½ statute acres. With the exception of about 300 acres of bog, it is principally under tillage; the soil is very fertile, and the system of agriculture much improved. It contains several quarries of limestone and greenstone. The surrounding scenery has been much improved by extensive planting. Ardee House is the seat of Mrs. Ruxton, and Red House, that of W. Parkinson Ruxton, Esq; a handsome demesne is attached to each. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Armagh, to which the rectory of Kildemock was united by act of council in 1700, and subsequently the vicarages of Shenlis, Smarmore, and Stickillen episcopally, forming the union of Ardee, in the patronage of the Lord Primate: the rectory is impropriate in Viscount Ferrard. The tithes amount to £392.13.11., the whole of which is payable to the impropriator, who allows a stipend to the incumbent, who, besides a glebe-house and 40 plantation acres of glebe, valued at £120 per ann., at Kildemock (nearly in the centre of the union), has a glebe in this parish comprising 104 plantation acres and valued at £391.11.5. per ann., fifteen tenements in the town let for £107.2.2. per ann., and half an acre in Stickillen of the annual value of £1.10. The gross annual value of the benefice, tithe and glebe inclusive, is £842.13.7. The church, which was formerly that of the Augustine monastery, is an ancient and spacious structure, supposed to have been built in 1208, and still in good repair. The R.C. district comprises the Protestant union and the parish of Maplestown in addition, and contains two chapels, situated at Ardee and Kildemock: the former stands at the entrance to the town from the south, and was built in 1829; it is a handsome and commodious edifice faced with hewn stone, 100 feet long by 56 broad, with a gallery extending round three sides of it.
There are two schools for both sexes on the foundation of Erasmus Smith: the boys' school-room was built in 1806, and the girls' in 1817, at a total expense of £600, of which the corporation contributed £450 and about three roods of the fair green as a site, and W.P. Ruxton, Esq., £150. There are seven private pay schools, also a dispensary and a savings' bank. Of the Augustine monastery, with the exception of the church, only the eastern wall of the belfry at the west end, and an adjoining cell on the north are remaining; and of the Carmelite friary there are no vestiges. Near the church are the remains of an old college, which have been converted into a thatched dwelling. The ancient castle, situated in the middle of the town, and now used as a courthouse and gaol, is of quadrangular form, with a high roof and a rudely pointed gateway; the east and west fronts are defended by projecting towers, which rise above the rest of the building. In the centre of the town is also another ancient castle, which has long been in the possession of the Hatch family; it was granted by Cromwell to Williams, one of their ancestors, and has been recently fitted up as a handsome dwelling by W. Hatch, Esq., the present proprietor; it is defended by embrasures and a tower on the east side, on which have been placed two four-pounders, by permission of the lord-lieutenant and council in 1828. Close to the town is a fortified mount of great magnitude, anciently called Gnuc na Scanghairn, and the seat of the chiefs of the district. The Earl of Meath enjoys the inferior title of Baron Brabazon, of Ardee, by which his ancestor, Sir Edward Brabazon, was elevated to the peerage of Ireland, in 1616.
BALLYBARRACK, a parish, in the barony of UPPER DUNDALK, county of LOUTH, and province of LEINSTER, 1½ mile (S.S.W.) from Dundalk, on the road to Ardee; containing 444 inhabitants. It comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 1018¼ statute acres; the lands are principally under tillage, and there is neither bog nor waste. It is a rectory, in the diocese of Armagh, and wholly impropriate in P. Coleman, Esq: the tithes amount to: £186. 2. 6. There is no church nor any provision for the cure of souls. In the R.C. divisions it is in the union or district of Kilcurley, or Haggardstown, where the chapels are situated. There is a hedge school, in which are about 50 boys and 20 girls.
BALLYBOYS, in the barony of LOWER DUNDALK, county of LOUTH, and province of LEINSTER, on the north side of the bay of Dundalk; the population is returned with Ballymascanlan. It comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 1435½ statute acres, and contains within its limits Bellurgan Park, the seat of E. Tipping, Esq., in which is a picturesque eminence commanding views of a bold and striking character. In the R.C. divisions it forms a separate district, called "The Lordship;" the chapel is situated near the bay, on the road to Riverstown.
BALLYMAKENNY, a parish, partly in the barony of FERRARD, county of LOUTH, but chiefly in the county of the town of DROGHEDA, and province of LEINSTER, 2½ miles (N.) from Drogheda; containing 563 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the road from Drogheda to Annagasson, and comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 1592¼ statute acres, of which 848¼ are in the county of the town of Drogheda; 860 acres are applotted under the tithe act. Listoke, the residence of Lieu -Col. Battersby, is a handsome mansion pleasantly situated. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the diocese of Armagh, erected in 1785, and in the patronage of the Lord Primate; the rectory is appropriate to the see. The tithes amount to £131.5., which is wholly payable to the perpetual curate, the Primate being only nominally rector, and deriving no emolument from the appropriation. The church is a handsome modern edifice with a spire, for the repair of which the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have lately granted £123.12.10. The glebe-house is situated near the church: the glebe comprises 22a. 3r. 2p. In the R.C. divisions the parish is one of the three that constitute the union or district of Moylary, also called Ballymakenny. There is a school affording instruction to about 45 boys and 12 girls.
The beautiful village of Ballymascanlon from a postcard dated 1918
BALLYMASCANLON, a parish, in the barony of LOWER DUNDALK, county of LOUTH, and province of LEINSTER, 2 miles (N.E.) from Dundalk; containing 6339 inhabitants. This parish derives its name from the sept of the Scanlons, its ancient proprietors: it is situated on the northern shore of the bay of Dundalk, and on the high road from Dublin to Belfast; a good road from Carlingford to Newry also passes through it. The lordship formerly belonged to Mellifont abbey, on the dissolution of which it was granted to the Moores, ancestors of the Marquess of Drogheda, by whom it was sold to the family of Fortescue, and is now the property of T. Fortescue, Esq. It comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 15,997½ statute acres, including 177¼ in the detached townland of Kilcurry. In the eastern part of the parish is a range of heathy mountains not designated by any general name, but of which one is called Carriquit, extending 7½ miles in a direction nearly from north to south; in summer they afford tolerable pasturage, and from the chalybeate properties of the springs which issue from them are supposed to contain iron ore. The western part is much improved by extensive plantations, and the scenery throughout is highly picturesque. The south and east portions form part of the shore of the bay, off which are taken fish of all kinds, more especially flat fish. Agriculture is in an advanced state; the land in some parts yields fine crops of wheat, barley, oats, and potatoes. Limestone abounds and is quarried for building and also to be burnt into lime for manure. The manufacture of linen is carried on to a limited extent: there are some bleaching establishments on the banks of the Flurry, the principal of which belong to R. Benison, Esq., who has also recently erected a flax-mill, and R. Thomson, Esq. At Ballymascanlon are corn-mills, the property of J.W. Mac Neale, Esq.; and there are other oatmeal and flourmills, and a manufactory for edge tools, at Ravensdale. The principal seats are Ravensdale Park, the residence of T. Fortescue, Esq., a handsome mansion situated in an extensive and beautiful demesne, with a well-stocked deer park; and Ballymascanlon House, of J. Wolfe Mac Neale, Esq. There are also many other genteel residences, namely, Annaverna, the seat of the late Baron McClelland, and now the residence of his widow; Strandfield, of J. Moore, Esq.; Mount Pleasant, of J. Mac Neale, Esq.; in Ravensdale, the residences of R. Benison, R. Thomson, A.H. Rutherford, and B. Thomson. Esqrs; Aughnaskeagh, of J. Black, Esq; Claret Rock, of T. McGrath, Esq; the Cottage, of Mrs. Rogers; the Villa, of Mrs. Skelton; Brohatna Lodge, he property of H.R. Brush, Esq; and the glebe-house, the residence of the Rev. H. T. Hobson, the incumbent.
The living is an impropriate curacy, in the diocese of Armagh, and in the patronage of T. Fortescue, Esq., impropriator of the rectory. The parish, having formerly been abbey land, is tithe-free, and the lord of the manor pays to the incumbent out of the impropriation an annual stipend of £20, which is augmented with a grant of £73. 12. per ann. from Primate Boulter's fund. The church is a plain structure with a tower, partially built in 1819 by a loan of £550 from the late Board of First Fruits, and repaired in 1836 by a grant of £256 from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners: it contains three handsome monuments, one to the memory of the late Baron McClelland, and the others to the Rev. Dennis Magrath and the Rev. Owen Ormsby, late incumbents; that to the latter was erected by subscription among the Protestant parishioners. The glebe-house is situated on a glebe of 20 acres, about 2¼ miles from the church. In the R.C. divisions this parish is included in the union or district of Faughart, and has three chapels, of which one, situated at Rock Marshall, is a neat and spacious edifice, built on ground given by Mr. Fortescue. There is a place of worship for Presbyterians in connection with the Synod of Ulster. The parochial school is aided by an annual donation from the impropriator; there are two other schools aided by private subscriptions and two R.C. schools are about to be placed under the National Board of Education: there are also six private pay schools in the parish, and a dispensary. Here is a cromlech of three upright stones supporting a massive tabular stone, about 12 feet long and 9 broad, and computed to weigh more than 30 tons: it is vulgarly called the Giant's Load, from a tradition that it was brought to the place by a giant named Porrah Baugh Mac Shaggcan. Near it, in the same field, is a rath called Chillo Ca Larc, said to be the burial-place of Mac Scanlon, chief of that sept in the tenth century. There are some remains of the ancient castle of Ballymascanlon; also of an old church on Faughart Hill, with a cemetery adjoining, in which is a large stone said by tradition to point out the grave of Edward Bruce, brother to the Scottish king: there are likewise several Danish raths on this hill. Mount Bagnall, at the eastern extremity of the parish, is all artificial eminence occupying a very romantic situation near the precipitous banks of the river, and is supposed to be of Danish origin. In the same vicinity is the old mansion of Piedmont, formerly the residence of the Balfours.
BARONSTOWN [BARRONSTOWN], a parish, in the barony of UPPER DUNDALK, county of LOUTH, and province of LEINSTER, 4 miles (W.N.W.) from Dundalk; containing 1012 inhabitants. It is situated on the turnpike road from Dundalk, by Castle-Blayney, to Monaghan, and comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 2208½ statute acres. The lands are nearly all arable and pasture; the soil is fertile, and the system of agriculture has been greatly improved; there is very little waste land, and not more bog than is sufficient to supply the inhabitants with fuel. Derefalone, the seat of G. McGusty, Esq., is in this parish. The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Armagh, with the curacies of Philipstown-Nugent, Kene, and Roche, united by act of council in 1785, forming the union of Baronstown, in the patronage of the Lord-Primate for three turns, and of the Dean and Chapter of Christ-Church, Dublin, for one: the tithes amount to £219. 10. 11½., and of the entire benefice to £414. 7. 9½. The church of the union, a neat edifice with a tower, and in good repair, is situated on an eminence at Philipstown-Nugent, nearly in the centre of the union; and almost adjoining it is the glebe-house, to which are attached 17 acres of profitable land. In the R.C. divisions the parish is partly united with Philipstown-Nugent and Dunbin, forming the union or district of Baronstown, and partly included in that of Haggardstown; the chapel, called the chapel of Kilcurly, is close on the confines of this parish and of that of Dunbin. There is a school at Kilcurly of about 80 boys and 40 girls. At Belrobin was an ancient castle, formerly the residence of a branch of the Bellew family; its site is now occupied by the residence and offices of Mr. Owen McKone, one of the most extensive occupiers of land in the county. There is also a rath or ancient fort at the same place, which has been planted, and another on the townland of Milltown.
BEAULIEU, a parish, in the barony of FERRARD, county of LOUTH, and province of LEINSTER, 2 miles (E. by N.) from Drogheda; containing 535 inhabitants. This place was occupied by Sir Phelim O'Nial and the insurgent forces during the siege of Drogheda, which was defended by Sir Henry Tichborne, one of the lords justices of Ireland, who, on the forfeiture of the estate by the Plunkett family, purchased and obtained a grant of it from Chas. II; the Rev. Alexander Johnson Montgomery, his descendant by the female line, is the present proprietor. The parish is situated at the estuary of the river Boyne, on the eastern coast, and comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 1228 statute acres, including 218¾ of tideway of the Boyne. Beaulieu House, the seat of the Rev. A.J. Montgomery, was built by the lady of Sir H. Tichborne: it is a stately mansion, situated in an extensive and finely planted demesne, bounded on the south by the Boyne, and contains an ornamental sheet of water; a very handsome entrance lodge has been recently erected. The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Armagh, and in the patronage of the Lord-Primate: the tithes amount to £105. The church, a neat structure with a tower, was built by aid of a gift of £600 from the late Board of First Fruits, in 1807; and contains some handsome marble monuments to the Montgomery family, and one to the Donagh family of Newtown; in the churchyard is a curious stone with the figure of a skeleton in high relief and the date, apparently 1117. There is neither glebe nor glebehouse. In the R.C. divisions the parish forms part of the union or district of Termonfeckan. The parochial school of 10 boys and 10 girls is aided by an annual donation from the rector, and the master has a house and land from the Rev. A. J. Montgomery; there is also a pay school, in which are about 20 boys and 10 girls.
BELLAGAN, a village, in the parish of CARLINGFORD, barony of LOWER DUNDALK, county of LOUTH, and province of LEINSTER, 2½ miles (S.) from Carlingford; containing 155 inhabitants. It is situated on the south-west side of the entrance into the bay of Carlingford, and consists of about 25 houses, which are mostly inhabited by small farmers and agricultural labourers. - See CARLINGFORD.
BLACKROCK, a village, in the parish of HAGGARDSTOWN, barony of UPPER DUNDALK; county of LOUTH, and province of LEINSTER, 2 miles (E.) from Dundalk; containing 434 inhabitants. This place is situated on the bay of Dundalk, and contains about 80 houses, which are neatly built. The beach is smooth and soft, and peculiarly adapted to sea-bathing; and, if due accommodation were provided for visitors, it might become a watering-place of general attraction. It is at present much frequented, during the summer season, by the farmers of the inland counties, both for the purposes of bathing and drinking the sea-water. Alexander Shekelton, Esq., of Dundalk, has a beautiful marine villa here. - See HAGGARDSTOWN.
CAPPOG or KIPPOGUE [CAPPOGE], a parish, in the barony of ARDEE, county of LOUTH, and province of LEINSTER, 1 mile (N.) from Dunleer; containing 542 inhabitants, of which number, 128 are in the village. This parish is situated on the road from Drogheda to Dundalk, and comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 1283½ statute acres, partly pasture but chiefly arable land. It is a rectory, in the diocese of Armagh, and constitutes part of the union of Dunleer: the tithes amount to £127. 11. In the R.C. divisions it is also part of the union or district of Dunleer.
CARLINGFORD, a seaport, market and post-town, and a parish (formerly a parliamentary borough), in the barony of LOWER DUNDALK, county of LOUTH, and province of LEINSTER, 11½miles (E. by N.) from Dundalk, and 59¾ (N.) from Dublin; containing 12,185 inhabitants, of which number, 1319 are in the town. This town appears to have originated in the erection of a castle, either by De Lacy or De Courcy, by order of King John, 1210, but is mentioned by some authorities as the place where St. Patrick, in 432, effected his second landing; and the ferry of Carlingford was granted by Sir John de Courcy, in the year 1184, to the abbey of Downpatrick. The town, which gradually rose in the neighbourhood of the castle, appears to have consisted chiefly of castellated buildings, arising from its situation on the frontier of the pale. In 1301, Matilda de Lacy, widow of David, Baron of Naas, granted the advowson of the church to the priory of Kilmainham; and in 1305, Richard de Burgo, Earl of Ulster, founded a monastery for Dominicans here, dedicated to St. Malachy. Edw. II, in 1358, granted to his son, Lionel, Earl of Ulster, licence to hold a weekly market on Thursday, and a yearly fair here for six days. In 1404, the manor of Carlingford and town of Irish-Grange, which had previously belonged to the abbey and convent of Newry, vested by forfeiture in the king, who granted them in fee to Richard Sedgrave. A mint was established here in 1467, by act of parliament; and in 1495 it was enacted that Englishmen only should be constables of the castle. In 1596, Henry Oge, son-inlaw of the Earl of Tyrone, notwithstanding the submission made and pledges given by that nobleman to Queen Elizabeth, made an attempt to surprise the castle, but was defeated. Sir Henry Tichbourne took possession of the town in 1642, not, however, before it had suffered much injury by fire, from the adherents of Sir Phelim O'Nial. In 1649, Lord Inchiquin, after taking Dundalk, marched to this place, and compelled the castle, with other neighbouring fortresses, to surrender; but in the following year it was delivered up to Sir Charles Coote and Col. Venables. A party of the forces of Jas. II., in 1689, set fire to the town, in their retreat before the army of Duke Schomberg, who, in consequence, issued a proclamation threatening that, if such conduct were repeated, he should give no quarter. During the duke's encampment at Dundalk, and while disease was spreading through his forces, the sick were removed into Carlingford, until they became too numerous to be accommodated.
The town is beautifully situated on the south-west aide of the spacious lough or bay to which it gives name, and immediately at the base of an extensive range of mountains which terminates at this point. It consists of 288 houses, and, though small, has an interesting appearance, from the venerable ruins of its castle and abbey; it has a sub-post-office to Newry. The scenery of the bay is remarkably fine: the Mourne mountains, on the opposite side, are beautifully varied with rocks, woods, heath, and verdure; and in the foreground the shores are enlivened with neat cottages and numerous bathing-lodges. Carlingford mountain, which overhangs the castle, attains, according to the Ordnance survey, an elevation of 1935 feet above the level of the sea: from its height and position it intercepts, during a great part of the summer, the direct rays of the sun, for several hours before sunset. The oysters found in the bay are highly esteemed, and are sent in great quantities to Dublin, Liverpool, and other places. There is some trade in grain, great quantities of herrings are caught during the season, and fishing nets are made. The port has also some trade with Dublin, to which it sends large quantities of potatoes; and coal is imported from Scotland and Whitehaven. The bay, one of the finest natural havens on the coast, is eight miles in length and about four in breadth, extending inland, in a north-western direction, to Warren Point. The tide flows past the town to the port of Newry, and the harbour is accessible to large vessels at spring tides, but near the mouth the navigation is rendered rather hazardous by shoals and sunken rocks. A lighthouse at Cranfield Point on the northern side of the bay has been removed, and one, showing a bright fixed light, has been erected in its stead on Hawl bowling rock; at half-tide it shows, at night, an additional light halfway up the building; in the day, a black ball is hoisted on the top of a pole, 10 or 12 feet above the lantern, and in thick or foggy weather a bell is kept continually tolling by clockwork. On Greenore Point also a small lighthouse with a revolving light has been erected. The harbour dues are collected in the name of the Marquess of Anglesey, as lord of the manor, and admiral of Carlingford bay; they are leased for £20 per annum. The market is on Saturday; fairs are held on the first Saturday in each month, and there is also one on Sept. 29th. There are a coast-guard and a chief constabulary police station in the town, also three coast-guard stations at Cooley Point, Greenore Point, and O'Meath.
This is a borough of very great antiquity, probably by prescription. A corporation is recognised so early as 1326, when the king granted to the bailiffs of "Karlyngford" a charter for levying murage for six years, to enclose the town with a stone wall. By patent dated the 13th of March, 1409, Hen. IV., on the petition of the corporation, representing that the town had been often burned and wasted by the Irish and Scotch, acquitted them of all subsidies, tollages, &c., for several years; and for the same reasons, customs were granted to them, for 24 years from 1501, towards fortifying the town with a stone wall. Queen Elizabeth granted by charter, in 1571, extensive privileges and immunities. The governing charter, dated the 9th of August, 17th of Jas. I. (1619), creates a sovereign, l2 burgesses, and a commonalty of six, giving them authority over the whole of Carlingford and its liberties, with the exception of the castle of Arthur Bagenal, lord of the manor and its appurtenances. This charter declared that the corporation should be styled the "Sovereign, Burgesses, and Commonalty of the Town and Borough of Carlingford;" and should consist of a sovereign, twelve burgesses, and an unlimited number of freemen; two serjeants-at-mace and a coroner, a clerk of the market, and clerk of the entries, were also to be appointed. The sovereign is elected by and from among the burgesses, on Sept. 29th, and is a justice of the peace within the borough; he has the power of appointing a deputy, subject to the approbation of the burgesses. The burgesses are elected out of the commonalty for life, by the existing burgesses, and in conjunction with the sovereign possess the power of admitting freemen and appointing the corporation officers. As the admission of freemen was optional with them, none have been admitted since 1754. The sovereign and burgesses returned two members to the Irish Parliament prior to the Union, when the £15,000 paid as compensation for the loss of the franchise was divided equally between the Marquess of Downshire and the guardians of Mr. Ross Balfour Moore. The limits of the borough are reputed to extend about 2 miles on the north, and 1½ mile on the south, side of the town, along the sea shore, and from the top of a ridge of mountains rising immediately behind it to the shore of the bay. A borough and manor court, formerly held here, have been discontinued; and the borough gaol, called "the blackhole," under the tholsel, has been disused for many years. Petty sessions are held on alternate Saturdays. The corporation has no property, except what they may be entitled to in commons belonging to the town, which, according to the Down survey, contained 1231 acres; and the only officer now appointed is the sovereign.
The parish comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 20,049¾ statute acres, of which 65¼ are water. The commonage extends along the side of a mountain, some part of which is enclosed, and on which the poor of the neighbourhood graze their cattle. The land in Cooley is of very superior quality and under a good system of tillage, particularly the farms of R. De Verdon, Esq., and those of Wilville and Ballug; there is no bog, and fuel is consequently scarce. Near the town are some extensive limestone quarries, the produce of which is principally sent northward. Nootka Lodge is the residence of Hugh Moore, Esq., and commands a fine view of the sea and the Mourne mountains. Among the other seats are Grange, the residence of T. Gernon, Esq.; Monksland House, of R. De Vernon, Esq.; Wilville House, of J. Gernon, Esq.; Castleview, of W. Moore, Esq.; Balley Castle, of John Parks, Esq.; and O'Meath, of John Bell, Esq. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Armagh, and in the patronage of the Archbishop, to whom the rectorial tithes are appropriate: the tithes amount to £457, of which £152. 6. 8. is paid to the archbishop, and £304. 13. 4. to the vicar. The church is a modern building, with the exception of the tower. A new glebe-house was built by aid of a loan of £750 from the late Board of First Fruits, in 1813: the glebe, in its immediate vicinity, comprises about 21 acres. In the R.C. divisions this parish forms the two unions or districts of Carlingford and Cooley, comprising four chapels, those of Carlingford and O'Meath in the former, and of Grange and Mullabay in the latter; the chapels of Carlingford and Grange are neat buildings, and that at O'Meath was built on a plot of ground given by the Marquess of Anglesey, who also contributed £30 towards the expense. There is also, in the town, a place of worship for Presbyterians of the Remonstrant Synod, of the third class. The parochial school for boys and girls is aided by an annual donation from the vicar; and there are two schools for the children of Roman Catholics on the estate of the Marquess of Anglesey at O'Meath, which are partly supported by him. These schools afford instruction to about 100 boys and 60 girls; and there are also twelve hedge schools, in which are 340 boys and 160 girls. A considerable sum has been contributed by Alex. Hamilton, Esq., towards the erection of a school-house, which has been built on a piece of ground belonging to the lord primate, and is under the superintendence of the curate. It is also in contemplation to establish a school in the vicinity of the R.C. chapel at Carlingford, and another at O'Meath, in connection with the National Board of Education. Here is a dispensary.
The remains of the Dominican monastery consist principally of the walls of the conventual church, with a square tower supported on lofty pointed arches, and separating the nave from the chancel; at the west end of the nave are two turrets, connected by a battlement, and on the south is a small detached ruin, probably a chapel. These ruins, which are situated at the extremity of the town farthest from the castle, being overgrown with ivy, have a very interesting and romantic appearance. On the summit of a neighbouring hill, at Ruskey, are small remains of a church, or chapel, with traces of a burial-ground, but no monuments or even graves: it is thought to have been a rural residence of the abbot. About halfway between the abbey and the castle are the ruins of a square building, with windows of an ecclesiastical character, curiously ornamented with sculptures of animals, human heads, and foliage. The remains of the castle, called King John's castle, shew it to have been an irregular pile of building, nearly in the form of a horseshoe: the walls in some parts are eleven feet thick, and some of the salient points are defended by loophole abutments; it is washed by the sea on the eastern side, and on the landside is a narrow pass overhung by wild and lofty mountains. The castle seems to have been erected to command this pass, and it enclosed various baronial halls and apartments, and a courtyard surrounded with galleries: the chief entrance is on the side next the sea, from a platform on which was apparently a battery for the defence of the harbour. The pass is only wide enough to allow a very small number of men to walk abreast: on one side of it the mountain rises abruptly, and on the other are dangerous precipices with the sea below. At Templetown are the ruins of an ancient church, with a burial-ground attached; near which are the remains of the castle of Ballug, a square pile of building with very thick walls, defended at the opposite angles by square turrets; the lower part has been converted into stables, and the upper into cornlofts. Carlingford formerly gave the title of Earl to the family of Taaffe, which becoming extinct on the death of Theobald, the 4th Earl, in 1788, Geo. III., in 1761, conferred the title of Viscount Carlingford on the family of Carpenter, together with that of Earl of Tyrconnel.
The Village of Omeath, on the shore of Carlingford Lough, from a postcard dated circa 1912
CARRICK, or CARRICKBAGGOT, a parish, in the barony of FERRARD, county of LOUTH, and province of LEINSTER, 2½ miles (S.S.E.) from Dunleer; containing 340 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on the coast road from Drogheda to Dundalk, contains 826¼ statute acres, chiefly arable land, and includes part of the demesne of Rokeby Hall. It is a rectory, in the diocese of Armagh, and is part of the union of Rathdrummin: the tithes amount to £57. 8. 6. In the R.C. divisions it forms part of the union or district of Clogher. There are some remains of the old church.
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